General Information
Packaging Types and Uses
Matters Needing Attention

What is paper - corrugated cardboard packaging in the world?

Corrugated cardboard is a type of packaging which is produced and used in the world for more than 140 years. Since with its raw material paper which is a substance that can be reproduced, reused and recycled, we can say that it is the type of packaging with the highest environmental compatibility. As its raw material obtained from the nature, and final treatment of scrap after use; corrugated cardboard is proved to be the most environmentally friendly packaging material.

Packaging primarily was born for protection of industrial products and developed with need for marketing later on. The first forms of the packaging was with wood. Over time, paper has come to agenda as an alternative to wood because of high costs of wood, large volume it occupies and conservation of forests. Production of corrugated signboard and then corrugated board was developed with the fact that the paper cannot be a packaging for protection alone. Corrugated sheet was first used by wine producers. Straw supplements were used in the past in order to prevent the bottle breaks, that wine producers encounter when transporting bottled products in wooden crates. Over time, the corrugated sheet product was developed and bottles were wrapped to corrugated sheet and than put to crates. After the positive result from corrugated sheet, corrugated cardboard sheet was developed. Paper packaging is developing rapidly in our country as well as in the world and its usage is increasing.

Corrugated cardboard was first used as a packaging material in the United States in 1871. Although, in the first uses, the reason of usage was to prevent bottles and jars to break in crates, than it was started to be used by wrapping the corrugated sheets in the crates was used in the form of a single face corrugated sheet and was used as a dressing protection material. In 1908, the first corrugated cardboard sheet (double sided corrugated) was produced in the USA and started to be used as an express mail package. By seeing the advantages of it, corrugated cardboard technology continued its development in 1914, and the first double-wave corrugated cardboard was produced in the USA.

It is the reason for so-called A-Box because it was originally designed and built in the USA and has been replaced instead of sacks or crates’ usage.

What is paper corrugated packaging in Turkey?

Corrugated cardboard in our country was produced for the first time in 1954 at the state-owned SEKA Izmit facilities. The first private sector investment was made in 1960 by DAKO company in Istanbul.

Despite its rapid development in the world, use of corrugated cardboard packaging does not increase rapidly in our country. Use of corrugated packaging; In line with contemporary thoughts on issues such as nature awareness, recycling and creating marketing advantages, there are studies showing that its use is increasing.

Even in the big cities of our country until the last twenty years, the first thing that comes to mind when it comes to packaging is wrapping with newsprint paper. Currently, habit of packaging with newspaper paper is common in small provinces and districts. This habit is the result of not being an industrial society and being an agricultural one.

When we compare packaging usage rates in our country with rates in developed countries, it is seen that there are serious differences. While packaging selection and design are planned in developed countries for standard products to be 2-3% of the price of packaging, in our country, a quarter of the proportion of this proportional price is formed. We believe that importance and requirement of packaging is a result of culture. Some customers who have received offers from EK AMBALAJ still say, "packaging is required until product goes to customer, then it is thrown into trash, and nothing should be paid for something that will be thrown away!" We are having difficulties to serve a customer group who is not aware of that the packaging has to protect the product until it goes to customer and the function is that much. Yes, packaging must be in a format that defines product's characteristics and in parallel with the value of the product, to prevent product from deforming until it reaches customer, to show itself appealing on shelf. We think that use of packaging will increase with proliferation of industrialists who believe and apply this idea.

The sector that produces packaging with corrugated board should be evaluated in three categories.

  1. Integrated facilities: Firms that produce their own bobbin paper, corrugated board and garment product (parcel-box packaging).
  2. Corrugated sheet producing facilities: Firms that produce corrugated cardboard sheet and garment product (parcel-box packaging) by purchasing coil paper.
  3. Garment packaging facilities: Firms that produce garment product (parcel-box packaging) by purchasing corrugated cardboard sheets in certain sizes.

Competition among manufacturers in these three categories affects garments most negatively. As a result of garments being addicted to ready-made corrugated board; The remaining part from the other two manufacturers constitutes customer portfolio of ready-made garments. Packaging usage amount of this group of customers is very low among others. After all, there is a more fierce competition among garments. In this competitive environment, we have difficulties in highlighting the difference between using a quality raw material (corrugated board) and a garment using a low quality raw material and explaining it to customer. While there are difficulties in explaining the importance of packaging, it is not difficult to estimate the magnitude of the problem in explaining the quality difference.

Garment packaging production can also be done in workshops established with small capitals. Ankara EK Ambalaj has chosen most of its employees from outside the sector since 2003, when it was founded, and among those who do not know the packaging business. He trained all those who did not know this job and brought it to the point of sloter master. In these three years, 8 trained masters left the job. 4 of them opened a workshop and now are doing their own business. After such a process; you have a competitor who knows your customers, knows the price policy, knows the marketing system and knows you as much as you. In addition, in the employees of these and other small-capital workshops, the presence of socially secured members is either absent or a few. This is directly reflected in operating expenses and creates results against us in terms of cost. We are experiencing an unfair competition created in this.

Garment packaging production is a service industry. The fact that the difference between quality and poor quality services is reflected in packaging prices, as the value of service sectors in our country does not find its exact place and still not accepted by packaging users and small industrialists.

Integrated facility and corrugated board producers do not look to the garment producers for the sale of sheet (size corrugated board). They keep prices high for garment manufacturers, as they reluctantly sell sheet. This also creates unfair competition.

Despite this stated price and all other negativities, garment packaging manufacturers like EK Ambalaj are the ideal suppliers for customers using medium and low volume (100-2000 pieces per month) packaging. Garment packaging manufacturers always keep customer satisfaction preliminary because they work customer-oriented. They can more easily respond to requests, such as small orders or short delivery times.

CORRUGATED BOARD: Corrugated cardboard sheets cut in desired dimensions in corrugated machine are called Corrugated Board, which is a very old term in the industry.

WAVE: The perm that is seen in the perpendicular section to grooves is defined by ‘’wave’’ due to its shape.

WAVE HEIGHT: It is the height that is formed by corrugated fluting paper between upper and lower arches.

WAVE LENGTH: It is the distance between corrugation adhesion points in single face or corrugated cardboard.

GUTTER DIRECTION: According to FEFCO, it is expressed with a triangle hatch. It is perpendicular to the working direction in corrugated machine and parallel to working direction in box production machines.

RİL:It is the traces that are made in the corrugated machine, slot or mold knives in order to fold the corrugated board. This word, which is called ‘creasing line’ in printing, is expressed as a trace or ril by corrugated cardboard manufacturers.

CORRUGATED RIL: These are the rollers thrown in the corrugated cardboard sheet in the corrugated machine so that the box covers can be folded. They always come perpendicular to the grooves.

SLOTTER RIL: These are the rils that are made in the slotter to form the side surfaces of the boxes which are made onto rilled plates-. They come parallel to the grooves.

PERFORATION: It is the cutting of corrugated cardboard plate in only certain points on the same line so that it can be easily folded in both directions (inside-outside) from the desired place. It is used in molded production.

ZIPPER BLADE: These are mutual blades used in corrugated boxes to facilitate the opening process. They are used in molded production.

TEAR TAPE : It is 4-6 mm wide polypropylene tear tape which is affixed perpendicularly to the grooves at the desired point (s) of plate in the corrugated machine, in order to facilitate the opening process in corrugated cardboard boxes.

HANDLE: To facilitate carrying of corrugated cardboard boxes, they are usually full or half cut holes with special molds, with the size of a hand ( 30*90 mm) on the narrow sides of the box.

VENTILATION HOLE: These are generally circular holes cut with special molds to ensure the ventilation of products in corrugated boxes.

OVERLAP: It is the lid lengths in boxes that do not merge in the middle of the edge and overlap each other in desired dimensions.

SKIP FEED : If the length of corrugated cardboard is longer than the slotter cylinder circumference, it is missed by passing a plate from the machine for two turns of the roller.

SLOT - SLIT: These are the slits that are opened in the continuation of the slotter rolls to form the box covers.

OFFSET SLIT: These are the slits that do not center the roller and slide to the inner lids, especially for automatic filling, for easy closing of the box lids.

SLOT DISCARD: It is called the clipping that comes out of the slits.

SIDE SCALE: It is the piece cut from the edge of the plate passing through the slotter in order to ensure measurement accuracy.

EAR SCARF: These are the pieces cut from the top and bottom of the piecing ear.

ADDITIONAL EAR: It is a narrow strip with a width of 25-40 mm and a box height that connects the narrow and wide face to make the corrugated cardboard sheet into prism.

EXTENDED SPLING EAR: Extension of the splicing ear (40 mm) on the grooved roller in order to prevent ear opening.

WIDE FACE: The face that is formed by length and height in the box.

NARROW FACE: The face that is formed by width and height in the box.

LENGTH COVER: Lid that is the extension of the length in the box

WIDTH COVER: Lid, which is the extension of the width in the box.

COATING : It is a coating process with various materials to increase resistance of corrugated cardboard surface against water, moisture and oil permeability. While wax material was used in the past, water-based products that do not adversely affect the reuse of paper are used today. Application place is corrugated machine.

IMPRENEED: It is the paraffin, etc material impregnation process on fluting paper in order to corrugated cardboard to have moisture resistance, high stack strength. It is applied in corrugated machine.

UPS - OPS - TWIN FLUTE - DUAL ARCH : It is used to perm two corrugated paper instead of single fluting paper, after being combined with special adhesive, in order to provide high stacking strength.

PREPRINTING : It is the plotting of desired print in corrugated boxes as a bobbin on liner paper used. Sheets coming out of the corrugation are already printed.

LAMINATION: It is the fixating of offset printed cardboard sheets on one side or corrugated cardboard board in lamination machines.

Corrugated Cardboard, which is the large portion of the packaging of all packable products, is in our lives in many forms.

The areas where corrugated cardboard packaging usage, which undertakes the task of keeping, protecting, carrying, and promoting the products that are packaged in the best way, on the road between production and consumption point, by decreasing the distribution expenses, are increasing day by day. All liquid, solid, granular, soft, hard, durable or sensitive products can be safely packaged with corrugated cardboard. Each corrugated cardboard box is designed in accordance with the product features it packs; It is produced considering the suitability for filling conditions, pallet, stacking, storage and transportation.

Corrugated cardboard that used to be employed as a transport packaging, which nowadays is a material that has managed to be very close to user as we use to cover books, shoes, souvenirs, vegetables and fruits, especially in recent years while environmental sensitivity has increased, as promotional packaging, chocolate packaging, picture frame, gift box and showcase decoration.

Given that it serves 6 (six) as food and agriculture and 15 (fifteen) as industrial products in our country, the number of products that we can say that the packaging is corrugated cardboard can take many pages. As users, we can easily notice this when we see the packaging and the material.

Corrugated cardboard’s sectoral percentages of usage in Turkey (%);

Türkiye'de  Oluklu  Mukavva  Kullanımının  Sektörsel  Dağılımı
* Source: FEFCO 1996 Annual Report

Corrugated Cardboard Consumption Values Per Capita in European Countries :

Avrupa ülkelerinde kişi başına göre oluklu mukavva tüketim değerleri
* Source: FEFCO 1996 Annual Report
İstif Önlem İstif Önlem İstif Önlem İstif Önlem İstif Önlem İstif Önlem İstif Önlem İstif Önlem İstif Önlem

Performance of corrugated packaging cannot be attributed only to raw material qualities and production methods used. Type of packaging choice for the purpose, packaging design, standards and legal practices should also be taken into consideration.

The informations given by corrugated cardboard box users, to box manufacturer, such as:

  • product
  • packing type
  • storage
  • transport
  • customer of the packed product

These informations greatly helps purchases of packaging to meet their expectations. In the light of these informations, box manufacturer company can supply suggestions and box designs in order to benefit its customers from all the advantages of using corrugated boxes.

About Your Product;

  • Did you complete your product and use and give its exact dimensions, weight and physical properties to manufacturer of the box?
  • Did you mention the characteristics of your product such as fragility, quick degradation, etc.?
  • If your product is sensitive to humidity, heat, shock and vibration, did you specify it?
  • If your product consists of multiple parts, have you specified whether to be installed as whole or in parts?
  • Did you specify the part of your product that you would particularly like to be protected?
  • Have you stated how many products you want in the package?
  • Have you delivered the product to be packed to box manufacturer in the number you want to be packaged?
  • If your product is not packaged for the first time, did you deliver a copy of the last packaging to your box manufacturer?

About Your Packaging Type;

  • • Did you inform your box manufacturer about how often your package is ordered and how frequently it will be renewed?
  • • Are you installing your packaging manually or with automatic machines?
  • Do you fill your packaging in automatic filling lines?
  • In case of using box inner parts; Are installation and installation processes done manually or through machines?
  • Which of ‘’band - seam – glue’’ do you use for closing the packages?
  • If tape-stitching-glue is not used for closing, do you need to take security measures?
  • Apart from printing, are labels, codes, etc. printed on the packaging, have you specified its exact place on packaging?
  • Do you want an outer box for your packaging?

About Your Storage Type;

  • Have you determined the box weight when it is full?
  • Does the packed product have bearer characteristic?
  • Does the bottom packing in the stack bear the weight of all the others?
  • Do you use pallets in storage, what sizes?
  • Have you checked the accuracy of how you placed it on the pallet?
  • How do you keep the packaging on the pallet together?
  • Are your packaging dimensions and storage conditions compatible?
  • Will filled boxes be affected by moisture and heat during storage?
  • Is it kept in the open air during the distribution?

About Your Transport Type;

  • Have you determined what kind of transportation will be chosen?
  • Do you know the transport time?
  • Is there a mandatory marking on the packaging to minimize the damage to your product by carriers during transportation?
  • Are the transport vehicle interior dimensions and your packaging and / or pallet dimensions compatible?

About Your Customer;

  • Does your customer have a special request for storage or material movement that will affect the packaging design?
  • Will the packaging be located at point of sale, on shelf or in showcase?
  • Will the packaging also exhibit the product?
  • Is it designed in a way to make it easier for consumer to carry the packaging?
  • Is it desired to open the packaging easily by consumer?
  • Is the opening instruction placed on the box?
  • Has the institutional identity of customer been taken into account in the graphic design?
  • Does the packaging have qualities which will help to sell the product better?

Corrugated cardboard boxes are transformed into unit loads, with or without additions, by connecting them in the desired number of packages or stacking the desired number of pallets. Storing of boxes whether they are installed flat or not greatly affects their performance. So, although both manufacturer and consumer company do not have a large share in total cost of the product; corrugated cardboard packaging should be protected and stored under the desired conditions. .


  • Ties should not be opened until they are used.
  • For a stronger stack, placement of ties on the pallet should be done crossed.
  • Stacking height of boxes on pallets should not be much.
  • Boxes must be palletized etc. or should be kept on a material such as pallets to never be left on floor.
  • Heavy materials should not be placed on boxes in the stack, feet must be off.
  • Discard cardboard and boards should be placed on the pallets to equalize the load distribution and prevent surface damage.
  • Bağlanmış kutular, atılmadan hareket ettirilmelidir.
  • Tied boxes should be moved without being thrown.
  • Boxes should be stored horizontally on smooth surfaces.
  • Boxes should be kept horizontally until the installation and closing time before filling.
  • To protect from the variable heat and humidity, boxes should be stored away from hatch doors.


Corners of corrugated cardboard boxes are the most resistant parts of them. Taking care that the strongest corners overlap when stacking on pallet helps boxes to be more resistant to collapse. The loss of performance in boxes due to poor placement and stacking is surprisingly large.


Corrugated cardboard boxes used as packaging of industrial products are turned into unit loads during their movements in distribution chain. By sealed boxes are placed on transport vehicles by stacking them on pallets, wrapping them in circles or polyethylene films and making them a unit load instead of moving one by one; Damage to product and packaging is reduced to minimum and also time, space and labor are saved. At all stages of transportation, there should be a harmony between loading and unloading the loads which are placed on pallets. Pallet movement becomes impossible in places where forklift cannot enter. Use of pallets requires standardization. Pallet sizes can be chosen according to goods and packaging system that can be placed on it, and packaging can be made according to pallet.

The crash test value, one of the most important performance indicators of corrugated cardboard boxes which shows how many rows of boxes can remain on the pallet without collapsing, but is not sufficient alone. The damage caused by external factors such as weight, stack height, placement on pallet, pallet itself, humidity of the environment, storage time are of great importance.

The way it is placed on the pallet, which is one of the conditions that the user of the box can easily interfere, directly affects packaging and product during storage process. Although not always applicable, it may make you consider taking action if its effect is known.

Oluklu Önlem Oluklu Önlem Oluklu Önlem Oluklu Önlem Oluklu Önlem Oluklu Önlem Oluklu Önlem Oluklu Önlem Oluklu Önlem

Common purpose of tests applied to corrugated cardboard boxes is to measure their performance, taking into account the dangers that packed packages may encounter during distribution chain and storage process. These tests are generally applied to packages called Standard Box (FEFCO 0201-RSC-American Box) which are installed and sealed.


It is made with a special test device in order to measure the resistance of boxes, which are always used in groups in distribution chain. The upper tray is lowered at a certain speed until the first deformation is seen on the box that is placed on the movable tables that one of which is fixed and the other is between. The result with the unit N is read from the display. While determining box quality, although climatic conditions, stowage time and shape are not known, the box collapse value is also calculated theoretically with the Mc Kee formula. With this test, the load value of bottom box can be determined from the boxes stacked on top of each other.


In case boxes may fall during loading, unloading and storage in transportation vehicle, these tests are made for the purpose of measuring the damage that will occur in the package and the product it carries. Damage is determined by dropping the box, which weighs less than 100 kg and is filled and closed from a certain height to a hard surface, on any face, edge or corner.


It is carried out with the aim of determining of boxes’ strength in case of sudden stop or collision with another vehicle during air, land, sea, railway transportation. The filled and sealed box is moved on a slanted plane at a certain speed by determining the damage caused by hitting any face, edge, corner on a hard surface at a 90˚ angle.


It is done in order to determine the damage to package or product by the vibration that will be caused by air, land, sea and railway transportation Damage is determined by keeping the filled and sealed box on a vibrating table for a certain period of time.